The Institute of Chemistry was established in 1959 on the basis of the Department of Organic Chemistry, and that of Inorganic Chemistry and the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the Moldovan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The cornerstones of scientific directions of the institute were laid down by famous researchers, members of the Academy of Sciences, founders of scientific schools in the Republic of Moldova: acad. Antonie Ablov (1905-1978) – school of coordination compounds chemistry; acad. Gheorghe Lazurievski (1906-1987) – school of organic and bioorganic chemistry, acad. Iurie Lealicov (1909-1976), organizer and leader of research related to physical-chemical methods of analysis – school of polarography.
Later, new scientific schools were created, those of quantum chemistry – headed by acad. Isaak Bersuker; organic, bioorganic chemistry and chemistry of natural and physiologically active compounds – headed by acad. Pavel Vlad (1936-2017); chemistry of coordination, macrocyclic and supramolecular compounds – headed by acad. Nicolae Garbalau (1931-2006); bioinorganic chemistry – headed by acad. Constantin Turta (1940- 2015); ecological chemistry – headed by acad. Gheorghe Duca and the scientific school in the field of chemistry of adsorbents was created by acad. Tudor Lupascu.